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Flora and Fauna of Kanha National Park


Flora & Fauna of Kanha national park Kanha tiger reserve comprises Kanha national park and Phen wildlife sanctuary. This tiger reserve is spread over two districts of Madhya Pradesh state, sharing border with Chattisgarh state. These two districts of Madhya Pradesh are Mandla and Balaghat. Area of Kanha national park is 940 sq. kms. Its buffer area is of 1134.31 sq.kms and Phen wildlife sanctuary is spread over 110.74 sq. kms. This protected area possesses a wide range of typical floral & faunal attributes of Central Indian highlands. It is spread over Maikal-Satpura hills in an excellent condition several vegetal types.


Here we can find 10 varieties of Angiosperms (flowering plants) belonging to 506 benera and 134 families. Here we can also find 22 species of Pteridophyte belonging to 14 genera and 14 families. Its floral diversity also includes 2 species of Gymnosperm belonging to 2 genera and 2 families, with aquatic plants of 50 species. Here 18 plants are of rare categories. In given below table, we have share the vegetation type information of Kanha tiger reserve with their share in percentage.

Forest composition

Habitats Share % Preferred by
Sal Mostly in valleys 18.08% Spotted deer, sambar, wild boar, langur, tiger, leopard, jungle cat, sloth bear, wild dog (dholes)
Sal / Bamboo 5.07 % Sambar, gaur, wild boar, langur, tiger, leopard
Mixed Sal with Jamun, Saja & other species 13.21 % Spotted deer, langur, leopard, sloth bear
Mixed Sal / Bamboo 7.34 % Sambar, gaur, wild boar, jackal, langur, tiger, leopard
Mixed: upper plateau areas 16.05 % Gaur, spotted deer, chowsingha, tiger, wild dog
Mixed Bamboo 24.8 % Gaur, Sambar, wild boar, langur, tiger, leopard
Valley grasslands 6.4 % Gaur, spotted deer, wild boar, wild dog, tiger, sambar, jackals, wolves
Dadar (plateau) Grasslands 2.61 % Barasingha, black buck, spotted deer, chowsingha, tiger, wild dog, jackal
Grassland with mixed forest tree species 2.88 % Chital, barasingha, blackbuck, chowsingha (on plateaux), wild boar, langur, tiger, wild dog
Agricultural land with human habitation 3.5 % spotted deer, sambar, jackal, wolves, leopard


Kanha national park have rich faunal diversity. This forest is basically spread over two river valleis i.e Banjar river and Hallon river. They are the lifelife of Kanha tiger reserve, spread over Satpura mountain system. During our safaris, we cover mainly Banjar river valley thus Hallon river valley remain mostly untouched from tourists. It represents typical deciduous forest of the tropical region. Here we can find about 297 bird species, more than 32 mammal species and many reptile species. It has many taple top grassy hills with valleys, rolling meadows etc. All this offers rich combination of vegetation and topography, offering shelter to variety of herbivores and carnivores.


The main herbivores, found in Kanha tiger reserve, during jungle safaris are Spotted deer (Axis axis), hard-ground Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli branderi), Sambar (Cervus unicolor), Langur (Presbytis entellus), Gaur (Bos gaurus). Some occasionally seen herbivores are Black buck (Antilope cervicapra), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjac), Four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis). They are mostly seen in meadows areas.


Some of the popular carnivores of Kanha tiger reserve are Tiger (Panthera tigris), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Indian Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus dukhunensis), Indian Fox (Vulpes bengalensis) etc. Among scavangers, we can find Striped Hyaena (Hyaena Hyaena) and Jackal (Canis aureus).


Here can can find more than 297 bird species which includes wetland birds, nocturnal birds, birds of prey, ground feeding birds, aerial feeding birds and arboreal birds. It means whether you are staying in resort or in village or core zones or buffer zones, we can enjoy birding at all locations. While visiting Kanha national park, birdwatching is something that we can do even without going for jungle safari. Large number of bird species can be sighted on village side routes like Mocha to Khatia, Mocha to Boda Chapri route, Mocha to Manegaon forest, Mocha to Kumadehi route. If your hotel is in Mukki gate side then you can explore Mukki to Garhi route for good birding.


Tiger reserve also offers ideal habitat to reptiles, feathered bipes, amphibians, fishes, insects etc. The reptiles include snakes and lizards. Here snake sighting is good during monsoon season i.e. from July to October in which rat snake (Ptyas muscosus), checkered keelback sighting is common. Under insect category we can mainly find moths, butterflies, dragon flies, grass hoppers, termites etc.

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